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Standard Affidavit

1. I am the Office Manager at the Internet Archive, located in San Francisco, California. I make this declaration of my own personal knowledge.

2. The Internet Archive is a website that provides access to a digital library of Internet sites and other cultural artifacts in digital form. Like a paper library, we provide free access to researchers, historians, scholars, and the general public. The Internet Archive has partnered with and receives support from various well-known institutions and libraries, including the Library of Congress.

3. The Internet Archive has created a service known as the Wayback Machine. The Wayback Machine makes it possible to browse more than 450 billion pages stored in the Internet Archive's web archive. Visitors to the Wayback Machine can search archives by URL (i.e., a website address). If archived records for a URL are available, the visitor will be presented with a display of available dates. The visitor may select one of those dates, and begin browsing an archived version of the Web. Links on archived files in the Wayback Machine point to other archived files (whether HTML pages or other file types), if any are found for the URL indicated by a given link. For instance, the Wayback Machine is designed such that when a visitor clicks on a hyperlink on an archived page that points to another URL, the visitor will be served the archived file found for the hyperlink's URL with the closest available date to the initial file containing the hyperlink.

4. The archived data made viewable and browseable by the Wayback Machine is obtained by use of web archiving software that automatically stores copies of files available via the Internet, each file preserved as it existed at a particular point in time.

5. The Internet Archive assigns a URL on its site to the archived files in the format http://web.archive.org/web/[Year in yyyy][Month in mm][Day in dd][Time code in hh:mm:ss]/[Archived URL] aka an "extended URL". Thus, the extended URL http://web.archive.org/web/19970126045828/http://www.archive.org/ would be the URL for the record of the Internet Archive home page HTML file (http://www.archive.org/) archived on January 26, 1997 at 4:58 a.m. and 28 seconds (1997/01/26 at 04:58:28). A web browser may be set such that a printout from it will display the URL of a web page in the printout's footer. The date indicated by an extended URL applies to a preserved instance of a file for a given URL, but not necessarily to any other files linked therein. Thus, in the case of a page constituted by a primary HTML file and other separate files (e.g., files with images, audio, multimedia, design elements, or other embedded content) linked within that primary HTML file, the primary HTML file and the other files will each have their own respective extended URLs and may not have been archived on the same dates.

6. Attached hereto as Exhibit A are true and accurate copies of browser printouts of the Internet Archive's records of the archived files for the URLs and the dates specified in the footer of the printout or an attached coversheet in the case of records for which a browser does not provide a ready option to print a URL in the footer, e.g., in the case of a PDF file.

7. I declare under penalty of perjury that the foregoing is true and correct.




DATE:______________ _________________________